• Dictionary of Technical Terms in Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Writing Systems and Calligraphy

    Project Executor: Hamid Afshar and Neda Sahrapeyma

    Publisher: Iranology Foundation, first edition, 2017

    Format: Folio

    Page Number: 111

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    The invention of writing is one of the greatest achievements of the history of humanity. Available historical documents demonstrate that the first known pictographic/ideographic writing system was developed in Iran and was later transferred to other parts of the world. Iranians were also responsible for the development of the common writing systems in the realm of Islam. The script used by the people of Saudi Arabia at the time of the rise of Islam and during the time of the Holy prophet (s) lacked the necessary features for a correct understanding of calligraphy. Separations and connections of nations as well as their races (Arabs and Iranians) played no part in the quality of using this script. However, Iranian Muslim scholars gradually appeared in the capacity of skillful masters in the teaching classes of al-Haram Mosque and played a significant role in the development of Hijazi script. Islamic scripts and calligraphy, whether of an Arabic or Iranian origin, are greatly indebted to Iranian scholars and artists. They not only had a key role in bringing Islamic scripts to culmination but also used a relatively peculiar method of their own regarding each script. The invention of Nast'aliq script, which is deservedly called the bride of Islamic scripts, is considered to be the most important accomplishment of Iranians with respect to mixing Naskh and Ta'liq scripts for aesthetic purposes. Compiling and recording the forgotten or about-to-be forgotten terminology in the fields of writing systems and calligraphy were the main purposes behind creating the 6th volume of the Collection of the Dictionaries of Technical Terms in Handicrafts and Traditional Arts. This book contains 1498 entries in relation to writing, calligraphy, and the related terminology.

  • Dictionary of Technical Terms in Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Stone and Pottery

    - Project Executor: Neda Sahrapeyma and Faeze Aghighi and hamid afshar

    - Publisher: Iranology Foundation, first edition, 2017

    - Format: Folio

    - Page Number: 147

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    The history of making various hand-made tools goes back to pre-historic periods. Undoubtedly, the creation of stone tools, as the most ancient human innovation in order to benefit from earthly gifts, is considered to be a turning point in the rise of handicrafts and traditional arts. At the same time, it manifests the simultaneous maturity of the human mind and muscles. The considerable time interval between the emergence of a phenomenon called pottery and the different dimensions of Man's knowledge of their surroundings promotes numerous questions regarding the quality of human life on earth. Stone and pottery share several common aspects; for example, because of their direct relationship with earth, both of them are the most available materials to human beings for the purpose of creating tools, equipment, and pots. Moreover, both enjoy the important three-fold aspects which are of attention to human beings in the creation of hand-made artifacts including the functional and ownership, religious, and aesthetic aspects. Despite the presence of modern industries and also due to contemporary people's greater knowledge of the essential value of stone and pottery, their supreme place has remained unharmed up to the present time in the fields of handicrafts and traditional arts and is still the focus of considerable attention. With 1654 entries in relation to stone and pottery, the present work is the 7th volume of the Collection of the Dictionaries of Technical Terms in Handicrafts and Traditional Arts.

  • A Collection of the Selected Papers of the Second Photo Festival of the Iranology Foundation

    - Publication Center of the Iranology Foundation, first edition

    - Format: Folio

    - Page number: 336

    The ancient land of Iran has a great share in creating the art of Islamic architecture all over the world. The history of architecture in Iran goes back to 7000 years ago, and its related art and technology enjoy such a variety that no one can ever fully explain them. Nevertheless, the loving people of this country have never spared any effort to introduce the beauties and features of their land, however difficult and complicated the task might be.

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    The Second Iranology Photo Festival is the product of one of such efforts to introduce Iran to the world. From among the 5829 photos sent by 421 photographers to the Festival, 160 photos were chosen as the supreme works and displayed in the Festival Exhibition.

    The Iranology Foundation followed certain purposes for holding this specialized Festival. The most important of them, in addition to encouraging photographers and those who are interested in this art, was giving a thematic direction to artists in order to consider the historical, geographical, and Iranological features of photography subjects. In other words, the Iranology Foundation intended to persuade photographers and photography-lovers to pay particular attention to the specific content and message of their photos in addition to their artistic aspects.

    One of the most important characteristics of the book of Collection of the Photos of the Second Iranology Photo Festival is that, based on the purposes behind holding the Festival, it has been compiled with an emphasis on providing information following a content-based approach to the selected photos. For the first time in the publication of photo festival books, in this book, each photo is accompanied with a short but useful description of the geographical, historical, and important architectural features of its subject.

    Accordingly, the selected photos and their descriptions provide a treasure of the visual beauties of the historical monuments and buildings and artistic works of the land of Iran and some useful data about each and every one of them to interested people.

    This book has been designed in six parts. The first deals with mosques and schools; the second includes photos of shrines, prayer sites, tekyehs, and tomb towers; the third is devoted to some buildings and structures used by the public such as bazars, arcades, caravanserays, bridges, and publics baths; the fourth introduces towers and castles, and the fifth includes photos of houses and gardens. The last part introduces rural and local symbols and historical sites.

  • The Great Bazaar of Tabriz and its Surrounding Markets during the Last 200 Years

    The book The Great Bazaar of Tabriz and its Surrounding Markets During the Last 200 Years is the third volume of the Collection of Iranian Bazaars. This collection has been compiled by the researchers of the Research Deputy Office of the Iranology Foundation in Tehran and their colleagues at the East Azerbaijan Branch of this Foundation. The Great Bazaar of Tabriz is considered to be one of the most important pillars of the urban space of this city. If has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO; however, before the publication of this book, not much data about it was available to researchers to learn about and analyze its functions and roles in the financial transactions and daily life in Tabriz. The activities of this Bazaar have undergone massive changes during the recent era, particularly, after the Islamic Revolution. This book contains several details about the great Bazaar of Tabriz and has been designed in eight parts, each consisting of some chapters, some of which with their own subsections.

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    The book begins with some preliminary and general statements regarding its purpose and subject area. The first part of this book introduces the economic elements underlying the development of the Bazaar. This part consists of two chapters on the structures and features of the architectural and commercial elements and spaces of the Bazaar and its main elements and physical space.

    The second part contains some monographs regarding the Bazaar of Tabriz. It has been designed in two chapters on the communicative elements and architectural spaces of the Bazaar. The third part details the features of the economic organization of the Bazaar and the titles of the main activity groups there in two chapters.

    The fourth part discusses the role of human resources in the professional system of the Bazaar in two chapters. The first focusses on the past and present of different professions there, and the second refers to and explains six examples of the traditional active or inactive industries in this commercial center. The fifth chapter provides some useful information about the different functions of the Bazaar in three chapters: 1) Service, welfare, and tourism functions; 2) Cultural, social, and political functions; 3) Communication and information functions.

    The zonation maps of the different professions and places of the Bazaar are given in two chapters in the sixth part, and the seventh part introduces the markets surrounding it. Finally, the eight part presents the Appendices in five chapters. The list of all the references used for compiling this book has been given at the end of the book.

  • Treasure of the Documents of the Iranology Foundation

    Project executor: Hamid Afshar

    Published by: Publication Center of the Iranology Foundation

    First edition

    Folio format

    Number of Pages: 320

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    The documents left from the past usually include some useful and valuable information regarding the social, political, historical, or economic realities of various periods. That is why they are considered to be one of the most important sources for research in modern times. The originality and hidden truths of the documents which have been created in real places and real times grant them their essential value and authenticity. Such documents are of great importance because they not only contribute to a better recognition and understanding of complex problems in a society but also provide massive data about everyday activities therein, the social relationships dominating it, or its connection with the ruling administrative organizations. Accordingly, a study of historical documents is considered to be a kind of research on the historical background of a nation.

    The word "document" has been explored and defined from different points of view. In fact, each of the various scientific fields have provided their own definition for this term in conformity with their specific functions and required models. In the same vein, the field of Iranology, as an interdisciplinary science devoted to the study of the various known and unknown dimensions of the land of Iran and introducing them to the world, uses documents as a tool for conducting research. The perception here is that their content can enhance the progress of Iranology and contribute to our knowledge of the vague and hidden angles of this field. From the view point of Iranology, the old documents related to purchase contracts, compromise, testimony, orders, etc. have now lost their legal value; however, they still contain some noteworthy information regarding people’s customs and traditions, lifestyles, professions, and social relationships in the past, as well as the complexities of the economic conditions of earlier periods. Hence, the study of these documents can not only open the door to a better perception of a nation’s historical past but also pave the way for reconstructing the political, social, and economic conditions of those times.

    The book of Treasure of the Documents of the Iranology Foundation is the product of the activities of this organization in the field of collecting, preserving, and introducing documents. The existing documents in this work have been classified in three sections based on the frequency of their types. Their presentation in each section is based on a chronological order to facilitate researchers’ access to their required choices. The first section contains six historical documents; the second includes 58 documents in relation to land and property transactions from the Qajar Period onwards, and the third presents 36 documents regarding friendly letters, administrative and notarial correspondences, and some miscellaneous cases.

  • Introducing The Persian Gulf, the Heart of the World

    The book The Persian Gulf, the Heart of the World, by Mohammad Hassan Nami, provides an analysis of the Geoeconomic-Geostrategic Model of the Persian Gulf and explains its major features. After the Preface and the Introduction, the writer refers to the geographical situation of the Persian Gulf and elaborates on its history and strategic importance in controlling this waterway since the ancient times. Then he continues by focusing on the significant roles of this Gulf in the business relationships and political life of the governments on its shores.

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    Next, he discusses the post-Renaissance presence of foreign powers (Portugal, the Netherlands, France, England, and finally the US) there who coveted the unconditional exploitation of the resources in this region. Here, he emphasizes that, at the dawn of the geoeconomic period and upon the emergence of the problems of energy, security, and consumption, the United States, England, China, and NATO forces have been establishing military bases in this region and its surrounding countries, such as Bahrain, Oman (Musandam Peninsula), Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates, in order to achieve their military and strategic purposes there. In this part, the writer also explains the roles of America, above all Western exploiters, in political-military domains in establishing a unilateral security order for itself, a balance of power, and a multi-lateral order to maintain its own security. He also examines the significance of the geoeconomic status of the Persian Gulf and the geostrategic conformities among great powers and their military bases. Next, he demonstrates that, in the middle of this chaos, Iran plays a vital role in securing this critical region through creating a collective security system, a specific security organization to sustain energy, and an anti-terrorist organization in the Persian Gulf. In this way, the four significant elements of geographical situation, economic (oil and gas) status, consumption market, and, ultimately, regional culture will be safeguarded against the attacks of foreign exploiters and profiteers. This is the case while all big powers and greedy exploiters with the United States of America as their leader are always interfering with the affairs of this region and infringing its resources under such excuses as worrying about Iran’s nuclear problem and maintaining the security of the Persian Gulf. Finally, the writer concludes that, by intensifying and provoking ideological and borderline differences and disrupting security, these big powers merely intend to benefit from the oil, gas, and food resources; petrochemical, commercial and mineral products, and other riches of this region.

  • Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Architecture

    Project Executors: Neda Sahrapeyma and Faeze Aghighi

    Publisher: Iranology Foundation, first edition, 2014

    Format: Folio, 204 pages

    Handicrafts and traditional arts are a part of the cultural heritage and historical identity of each country.

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    They represent the dexterity of pioneers in the fields of industry and art and display the great taste, artistic skills, and creativity of the artists and craftsmen who patiently manifest the cultural messages and values of different generations in their works and transfer them to future generations with great care and effort. The creation of a work of art, apart from knowledge, experience, and art, is rooted in the culture of a nation. Therefore, it is a multi-dimensional process the links between the dimensions of which are established in the bed of language and by means of the technical terms used in each field of art. Presently, because of the arrival of a number of new terminology in the realm of art and industries, some of the past terms are being forgotten. However, the importance of recording the terms related to handicrafts and traditional arts in the mold of a dictionary cannot be denied.

    The Dictionary of Architecture contains about 4450 terms in relation to the arts associated with traditional architecture, including stucco, brickwork, tiling, sash window construction, mirror decoration, emerald cutting, mural painting, and Karbandi, collected from 126 sources. This book also contains some terms that are used in certain local dialects, which distinguishes it from similar dictionaries. The terms defined in this work are related to a variety of domains such as construction materials, tools, product components, decorations, design, professions, etc.

  • Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Metal Work

    Project Executor: Zohre Shirinbakhsh

    Publisher: Iranology Foundation (first edition, 2015)

    Format: Folio

    Page Number: 156

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    Metal and its related handicrafts are one of the domains signifying the brilliance of Iranian art and culture. The discovery of metal in Iran in ancient times resulted in the creation of an art and industry, the 7000-year history of which is a clear indication of the capabilities and dexterity of Iranian artistis in a new field of art and its development over successive centuries. Given its glorious history in Iran, the art of metalwork truly deserves the attention of those researchers who are interested in Iranian arts.

    Through referring to more than 100 valid research sources, it has been tried for the first time to compile a dictionary of the technical terms used in metalwork and metal handicrafts including 3300 independent entries. While the previous dictionaries only dealt with one branch of metalwork, this work contains the words used in various branches of metalwork such as enamel-work, embossing, filigree, and goldsmithing,. One of the other distinctive features of this work is paying attention to those terms which have been gradually forgotten due to the arrival of new technical terms into traditional fields of Iranian arts and professions over time. Finally, this dictionary includes several entries in relation to the substances and tools used in metalwork and the related designs, decorations, and professions.

  • Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Carpet Weaving

    Carpet weaving is one of the traditional and original Iranian arts which is rooted in the rich culture of this land. In fact, the patterns and designs in the hand-made carpets of each region in this country represent a part of its culture and history.

    The content of this dictionary has been compiled based on a thorough investigation of 177 sources under the meticulous supervision of experts in the related fields.

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    This work contains about 3740 entries regarding various carpet designs and patterns, knot types in carpet weaving and other loom-woven rugs, all the tools employed in this art, and the common terms used there. From among the distinctive features of this book, reference can be made to the following:

    1. Using a large number of valid sources and references;

    2. Providing the definition of each entry along with the related reference number;

    3. Recording the words in their original form, without any modification or change in order to prevent any misinterpretation on the part of readers;

    4. Pleasant layout and inclusion of appropriate pictures for some entries;

    5. Consulting with experts and masters in the field of carpet weaving;

    6. Including several local terms used in carpet weaving;

    7. Alphabetical listing of the entries.

    It is hoped that this dictionary can be of great assistance in scientific studies and contribute to preserving the terms related to carpet weaving and reviving the obsolete ones.

  • Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Textile and Clothing

    Project Executor: Neda Sahrapeyma

    Publisher: Iranology Foundation Publications, First edition, 2015

    Format: Folio, 268 pages

    Price: 325,000 rials

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    Clothing is among the main cultural manifestations of a society and represents the most delicate needs and desires of human beings during a given time and in a given place. It also plays a significant role in maintaining the social, cultural, and religious identifies of people in any community. The common terms or technical and specialized words in the fields of textile and clothing are derived from some linguistic and historical features the study of which could reveal the material and spiritual values of the lands where they are used as well as some evidence regarding the geographical borderlines of civilizations and the spread of various cultural areas.

    As a result, the collection of these terms in an organized book could be of great contribution to researchers and scientists by providing them with a reliable source which would save them a lot of time and energy with respect to looking up their intended words in various other sources. In this way, they can spend more of their precious time on the analysis, analogy, and explanation of the issues and problems of their concern. This was the main reason behind publishing the Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Arts: Textile and Clothing.

    This book contains 6050 terms and has been designed in two sections: Textile and Clothing. The definitions for the included terminology have been provided with reference to 143 sources. In preparing this book, it has been tried to choose the best and most appropriate definition for each term by consulting a variety of valid sources. In case of having a number of different definitions for one term, care has been taken to choose the most correct and documented one. Moreover, it has been tried to include and define a wide range of terms so that the users of this dictionary can find all the information they need therein.

    Due to referring to several sources, the number of the terms defined in this dictionary is very large, which makes it unique in its own type. It is also necessary to mention that in compiling this precious book, in addition to using several existing written and oral sources, the compilers have also benefitted from the assistance of the artists, researchers, experts and university professors working in the related fields.

  • Dictionary of Handicrafts and Traditional Culinary Arts

    Project Executors: Mana Soltanpour and Neda Sahrapeyma

    Publisher: Iranology Foundation Publications, First edition, 2015

    Format: Folio, 160 pages

    Price: 195,000 rials

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    Undoubtedly, cooking is one of the arts which are rooted in the culture of a society. Hence, it is not surprising that Iranians, like all other nations, have played a significant role in expanding this art by adding a great variety of dishes and methods of food preparation to it since long ago. In fact, they have continuously increased their capabilities in this field in the light of their creativity and aesthetic sense.

    However, culinary arts not been studied as much as they truly deserve in our country, and that is why it was necessary to compile a dictionary of handicrafts and traditional culinary arts. The common and technical terms in the field of handicrafts are derived from the historical and linguistic features of a society. Therefore, a study of such terms can provide us with some information regarding the material and spiritual values cherished in each society as well as some evidence signifying the borderlines of each civilization and the spread of the related cultural fields. As a result, the collection of these terms in a well-organized book could be of great contribution to researchers and academics in having access to a reliable treasure of technical words and their definitions without having to devote much time and energy to looking up their intended terms in various sources. Clearly, the time that they save in this way can be spent on having a more thorough study and analysis of their topics and terms of interest.

    This book has been prepared by reviewing and inspecting a wide variety of authentic and valid sources, which amount to more than 150. Introducing and explaining the meanings of terms which are gradually forgotten because of abandoning the old methods of cooking or because they are simply a part of the oral culture of such fields provide the opportunity for researchers, linguists, historiographers, and litrarymen to access a rich and reliable source of knowledge for their studies.

    This book contains, approximately, 3085 terms from 201 sources in relation to the different local and traditional types of food in various regions of Iran which enjoy unique diversity in their cooking styles in the past and present of the land of Iran. Therefore, it can be safely claimed that, presently, this book is unique in its own type. It is noted that, due to the great number of references of this book, the range of the terms included there is very vast.

  • Bazaar of Yazd and the Markets Surrounding it during the Last 200 Years

    The book of Bazaar of Yazd and the Markets Surrounding it during the Last 200 Years is the second volume of the Collection on Iranian Bazaars compiled by the Research Unit of the Iranology Foundation with the cooperation of the Yazd Branch of the same Foundation. Although the historical Bazaar of Yazd plays a key role in the life of this city, not enough data is available to researchers in this regard, and rarely ever has it been studied with the depth it truly deserves.

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    It is noted that recently, particularly after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the social relationships of the Bazaar of Yazd have undergone some great and vast changes. Moreover, the historical picture of this Bazaar, as the main center of trade and commercial relationships of the historical city of Yazd, is presently transforming to a large extent. The absence of the necessary documents for recognizing the role of the Bazaar of Yazd in urban life and the endless and rapid changes in its status demand a thorough documentation of its social-economic history and the markets around it. This book deals with three main pillars of the Bazaar of Yazd, physical-spatial structure, economic organization, and manpower, in eight parts, as given below.

    The first part provides some general information about the purpose, topic, and domain of the study. The second part examines the main and peripheral physical structures of Yazd. This part is divided into two chapters: "The Structure and Physical-Spatial Features of the Bazaar of Yazd" and the "Main Economic and Physical Elements of the Bazaar of Yazd". The third part of the book discusses the economic-social organization and the manpower of the Bazaar in two chapters entitled "Characteristics of the Economic Organization of the Bazaar of Yazd" and the "Main Classification of the Activities of the Bazaar of Yazd".

    The fourth part of the book continues the discussion of manpower in the context of the guild system and trades in the Bazaar, and the fifth part details its functions, including the economic and commercial functions, service and welfare functions, cultural functions, social and political functions, and communication, information, and tourism functions, in five chapters.

    The sixth part, entitled "Monographs", consists of three chapters. The first elaborates on the physical structure of the Bazaar with respect to its trade elements. In the second chapter, "Crafts in the Bazaar of Yazd", the status of six examples of the ancient guilds of this Bazaar which are presently active or crashing have been studied. The third explores the features and activities of the markets of the Bazaar of Yazd from the past until now.

    The zoning maps of the different professions and places of the Bazaar are presented in 10 zones in two chapters in the seventh part. Finally, the eighth part, entitled Appendices, provides a collection of important information regarding the other physical and spatial elements and manpower of the Bazaar of Yazd. This book was published in 264 pages in folio format in color in January 2012.

  • Old Mosques of West Azerbaijan Province

    The book Old Mosques of West Azerbaijan Province is the product of a group research about the past and present of the old mosques of West Azerbaijan Province which was carried out by the native researchers of this Province in the Iranology Foundation, West Azerbaijan Branch, in 2010-2012, and was published in 2013. The late Dr. Hassan Habibi supervised the processes of the design and final completion of this book and wrote an Introduction to it. This work provides a comprehensive report on 72 mosques dating back to more than 7o years ago in Urmia, Oshnavieh, Bukan, Takab, Khoi, Sardasht, Salmas, Siah Cheshmeh, Maku, Mahabad, Miandoab, and Naghadeh. The book details the results of a research enjoying an integrated nature in that all the mentioned mosques are more than 70 years old and are located in West Azerbaijan. However, the data regarding each mosque has been collected and presented independently from the other mosques.

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    In order to introduce each mosque, in addition to the date and place of its construction and the directions leading to it, its history and an account of the related repairs have been provided. Moreover, all the different parts of the present buildings of the mosques are described, and some explanations are given regarding their founders, custodians, Friday Prayer Imams (leaders), and servers and the religious and cultural activities which have been carried out there since they were was constructed until now.

    This book has been devised in three parts: Introduction, Old Mosques, and Appendices. In the first part, Introduction, we read about how the late Dr. Hassan Habibi accomplished the task of writing this book. The second part provides an extensive description of the 72 mosques of West Azerbaijan in an alphabetical order. Finally, the third part, in addition to introducing another mosque, presents a list of the second and third names and the age of each mosque, a list of appendices, a list of the mosques ascribed in the list of Iran’s Cultural Heritage, and the index of the book.

  • Cities of Iran, Volume 4: Kharg - Deyhuk

    The mysterious land of Islamic Iran with its thousands of secrets has been the cradle of an original civilization and culture the manifestations of which have ornamented the world cultures and civilizations like brilliant jewels since ancient times. One of the specific features of the rich Iranian culture, in addition to its various languages and cultures, is its particular customs and traditions which, in spite of the attacks of different ethnic groups and tribes, have still maintained their originality and, in this way, enriched the culture of this land.

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    That is why it has continually attracted the attention of world travelers, historiographers, geographers, and the lovers of knowledge and art to itself in the process of its development. Undoubtedly, the results of the studies of such scholars can cast a new light on the studies of Iran. Some of the comprehensive books written or compiled by such scholars about different cities, towns, or regions in Iran are considered to be among the most valuable sources for research on this country.

    The purpose behind compiling the book of Cities of Iran was to use a different approach in learning about city problems and introduce the cities of Iran, from old times until now, in a comprehensive but concise manner while focusing on their cultural, social, historical, geographical, and economic features.

    In writing and compiling this book, some specific points have been taken into consideration. For example, it has been tried to provide as much detailed and comprehensive data as possible when dealing with smaller cities. Moreover, the maps of provinces and their county divisions are given in black and white, and the locations of cities are distinguished from other places with a pink circle. The location of the center of each province is marked, and the rest of the map is empty. The names of cities are also given in black above the maps and, when introducing them, reference has been made to not only their historical and geographical features, but also to their social problems, traditions and customs, economy, common professions, etc. In the section on languages and dialects, it has been explained that in some regions of Iran, certain ancient Iranian language varieties are still commonly used in their original forms. Interestingly enough, even some Pahlavi and Avestan words are still used in these varieties. Furthermore, it has been tried to refer to the names of the distinguished scientists and scholars who are not alive any more. However, there is no reference to those who are presently contributing to the enrichment and development of knowledge and science in the country. Particular attention has also been paid to the common traditions in cities and, in some cases, a number of those which are not much common today and are even completely forgotten have been shortly mentioned.

    The main topics of the book and their subcategories are as follows:

    • City status: province, geographical longitude and latitude (the same everywhere), height from sea level, landform, distance from the closest city and the province center, date of establishment according to the approved laws of the Board of Minister, and age.

    • Nature: climate, mountains, springs, rivers, subterranean canals, close forests or deserts, preserved region or regions (in case there are any), flora and fauna of the region, temperature and the number of days with freezing temperatures, the name(s) and locations of mines, and some other nature related points.

    • History: the history of cities with reference to historical documents, their pre- and post- Islam history (in case of ancient ones), their local governments and their affiliations with historical dynasties from the past until the recent period, their history during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the Islamic Revolution, their status during the imposed Iran-Iraq war and other movements or uprisings, their experiences of some destructive events such as war, earthquake, flood, and epidemics.

    • Anthropological and sociological features: population, immigrant receiving, immigrant sending, language and religion, customs and traditions, ceremonies related to Nowruz, Chaharshanbeh Suri, and other national feasts and religious eids (celebrations), leisure activities, particular cuisines and traditional pastries, local clothing, and local music.

    • Economy and professions: farming and animal husbandry, industry, production for internal consumption or export, and services.

    • Education and culture: different educational levels from primary school to high school, higher educational and research centers, art centers (cinema, theatre, etc.), and cultural centers such as libraries, printing houses, and museums.

    • Health: health houses, clinics, hospitals, and the number of physicians (both general practitioners and medical specialists).

    • Communication system: transportation, dirt and paved roads, railroads, airplanes and airports, telephone and telegraph, mass media.

    • Religious centers: mosques, shrines, etc.

    • Historical works, sites, and monuments.

    • Great figures: scientists, poets, writers, and other famous people.

    • Sources and references: books, papers, and narrations which have been used in order to collect the required data for writing about each city.

    In order to provide accurate, authentic, and documented statistical data, the approved statistics given by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Statistical Center of Iran have been used in writing this book. The book of The Cities of Iran, volume 4, was published in 2012. It provides valuable information about some cities from Kharg to Deyhuk, which amount to 93 cities, in 503 pages. The writers of this book consist of 41 professors, faculty members, and university graduates.

  • Cities of Iran, Volume 5: Rabor - Zirab

    The mysterious land of Islamic Iran with its thousands of secrets has been the cradle of an original civilization and culture the manifestations of which have ornamented the world cultures and civilizations like brilliant jewels since ancient times. One of the specific features of the rich Iranian culture, in addition to its various languages and cultures, is its particular customs and traditions which, in spite of the attacks of different ethnic groups and tribes, have still maintained their originality and, in this way, enriched the culture of this land.

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    That is why it has continually attracted the attention of world travelers, historiographers, geographers, and the lovers of knowledge and art to itself in the process of its development. Undoubtedly, the results of the studies of such scholars can cast a new light on the studies of Iran. Some of the comprehensive books written or compiled by such scholars about different cities, towns, or regions in Iran are considered to be among the most valuable sources for research on this country.

    The purpose behind compiling the book of Cities of Iran was to use a different approach in learning about city problems and introduce the cities of Iran, from old times until now, in a comprehensive but concise manner while focusing on their cultural, social, historical, geographical, and economic features.

    In writing and compiling this book, some specific points have been taken into consideration. For example, it has been tried to provide as much detailed and comprehensive data as possible when dealing with smaller cities. Moreover, the maps of provinces and their county divisions are given in black and white, and the locations of cities are distinguished from other places with a pink circle. The location of the center of each province is marked, and the rest of the map is empty. The names of cities are also given in black above the maps and, when introducing them, reference has been made to not only their historical and geographical features, but also to their social problems, traditions and customs, economy, common professions, etc. In the section on languages and dialects, it has been explained that in some regions of Iran, certain ancient Iranian language varieties are still commonly used in their original forms. Interestingly enough, even some Pahlavi and Avestan words are still used in these varieties. Furthermore, it has been tried to refer to the names of the distinguished scientists and scholars who are not alive any more. However, there is no reference to those who are presently contributing to the enrichment and development of knowledge and science in the country. Particular attention has also been paid to the common traditions in cities and, in some cases, a number of those which are not much common today and are even completely forgotten have been shortly mentioned.

    The main topics of the book and their subcategories are as follows:

    • City status: province, geographical longitude and latitude (the same everywhere), height from sea level, landform, distance from the closest city and the province center, date of establishment according to the approved laws of the Board of Minister, and age.

    • Nature: climate, mountains, springs, rivers, subterranean canals, close forests or deserts, preserved region or regions (in case there are any), flora and fauna of the region, temperature and the number of days with freezing temperatures, the name(s) and locations of mines, and some other nature related points.

    • History: the history of cities with reference to historical documents, their pre- and post- Islam history (in case of ancient ones), their local governments and their affiliations with historical dynasties from the past until the recent period, their history during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the Islamic Revolution, their status during the imposed Iran-Iraq war and other movements or uprisings, their experiences of some destructive events such as war, earthquake, flood, and epidemics.

    • Anthropological and sociological features: population, immigrant receiving, immigrant sending, language and religion, customs and traditions, ceremonies related to Nowruz, Chaharshanbeh Suri, and other national feasts and religious eids (celebrations), leisure activities, particular cuisines and traditional pastries, local clothing, and local music.

    • Economy and professions: farming and animal husbandry, industry, production for internal consumption or export, and services.

    • Education and culture: different educational levels from primary school to high school, higher educational and research centers, art centers (cinema, theatre, etc.), and cultural centers such as libraries, printing houses, and museums.

    • Health: health houses, clinics, hospitals, and the number of physicians (both general practitioners and medical specialists).

    • Communication system: transportation, dirt and paved roads, railroads, airplanes and airports, telephone and telegraph, mass media.

    • Religious centers: mosques, shrines, etc.

    • Historical works, sites, and monuments.

    • Great figures: scientists, poets, writers, and other famous people.

    • Sources and references: books, papers, and narrations which have been used in order to collect the required data for writing about each city.

    In order to provide accurate, authentic, and documented statistical data, the approved statistics given by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Statistical Center of Iran have been used in writing this book. The book of The Cities of Iran, volume 5, was published in 2012. It provides valuable information about some cities from Rabor to Zirab, which amount to 72 cities, in 387 pages. The writers of this book consist of 35 professors, faculty members, and university graduates.

  • Cities of Iran, Volume 6: Sari – Siah Rud

    The mysterious land of Islamic Iran with its thousands of secrets has been the cradle of an original civilization and culture the manifestations of which have ornamented the world cultures and civilizations like brilliant jewels since ancient times. One of the specific features of the rich Iranian culture, in addition to its various languages and cultures, is its particular customs and traditions which, in spite of the attacks of different ethnic groups and tribes, have still maintained their originality and, in this way, enriched the culture of this land.

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    That is why it has continually attracted the attention of world travelers, historiographers, geographers, and the lovers of knowledge and art to itself in the process of its development. Undoubtedly, the results of the studies of such scholars can cast a new light on the studies of Iran. Some of the comprehensive books written or compiled by such scholars about different cities, towns, or regions in Iran are considered to be among the most valuable sources for research on this country.

    The purpose behind compiling the book of Cities of Iran was to use a different approach in learning about city problems and introduce the cities of Iran, from old times until now, in a comprehensive but concise manner while focusing on their cultural, social, historical, geographical, and economic features.

    In writing and compiling this book, some specific points have been taken into consideration. For example, it has been tried to provide as much detailed and comprehensive data as possible when dealing with smaller cities. Moreover, the maps of provinces and their county divisions are given in black and white, and the locations of cities are distinguished from other places with a pink circle. The location of the center of each province is marked, and the rest of the map is empty. The names of cities are also given in black above the maps and, when introducing them, reference has been made to not only their historical and geographical features, but also to their social problems, traditions and customs, economy, common professions, etc. In the section on languages and dialects, it has been explained that in some regions of Iran, certain ancient Iranian language varieties are still commonly used in their original forms. Interestingly enough, even some Pahlavi and Avestan words are still used in these varieties. Furthermore, it has been tried to refer to the names of the distinguished scientists and scholars who are not alive any more. However, there is no reference to those who are presently contributing to the enrichment and development of knowledge and science in the country. Particular attention has also been paid to the common traditions in cities and, in some cases, a number of those which are not much common today and are even completely forgotten have been shortly mentioned.

    The main topics of the book and their subcategories are as follows:

    • City status: province, geographical longitude and latitude (the same everywhere), height from sea level, landform, distance from the closest city and the province center, date of establishment according to the approved laws of the Board of Minister, and age.

    • Nature: climate, mountains, springs, rivers, subterranean canals, close forests or deserts, preserved region or regions (in case there are any), flora and fauna of the region, temperature and the number of days with freezing temperatures, the name(s) and locations of mines, and some other nature related points.

    • History: the history of cities with reference to historical documents, their pre- and post- Islam history (in case of ancient ones), their local governments and their affiliations with historical dynasties from the past until the recent period, their history during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the Islamic Revolution, their status during the imposed Iran-Iraq war and other movements or uprisings, their experiences of some destructive events such as war, earthquake, flood, and epidemics.

    • Anthropological and sociological features: population, immigrant receiving, immigrant sending, language and religion, customs and traditions, ceremonies related to Nowruz, Chaharshanbeh Suri, and other national feasts and religious eids (celebrations), leisure activities, particular cuisines and traditional pastries, local clothing, and local music.

    • Economy and professions: farming and animal husbandry, industry, production for internal consumption or export, and services.

    • Education and culture: different educational levels from primary school to high school, higher educational and research centers, art centers (cinema, theatre, etc.), and cultural centers such as libraries, printing houses, and museums.

    • Health: health houses, clinics, hospitals, and the number of physicians (both general practitioners and medical specialists).

    • Communication system: transportation, dirt and paved roads, railroads, airplanes and airports, telephone and telegraph, mass media.

    • Religious centers: mosques, shrines, etc.

    • Historical works, sites, and monuments.

    • Great figures: scientists, poets, writers, and other famous people.

    • Sources and references: books, papers, and narrations which have been used in order to collect the required data for writing about each city.

    In order to provide accurate, authentic, and documented statistical data, the approved statistics given by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Statistical Center of Iran have been used in writing this book. The book of The Cities of Iran, volume 6, was published in 2012. It provides valuable information about some cities from Sari to Siah Rud, which amount to 78 cities, in 477 pages. The writers of this book consist of 40 professors, faculty members, and university graduates.